Hominid Database

This page is still under construction but will soon be a dynamic database giving access to hominid fossil evidence. The database will alow searching, sorting and querying. I also hope to integrate it with google maps to allow the location of each find to be plotted and accessed from within the google map API.

Species:Homo erectus/Homo erectus ergaster Location:Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:35791
Discovered By:W. Henry Gilbert Estimated Age:1.0 mya Fossil Name:BOU-VP-2/66
Notes:Perhaps unites African finds and Asian finds into one species- Homo erectus Cutmarks on skull (tentatively attributed to animal gnawing) Argued by authors that Homo erectus, represented by Daka, was ancestor of Homo sapiens

Species:Paranthropus robustus/Australopithecus robustus Location:Drimolen Gauteng, South Africa Discovery Date:34628
Discovered By:Andre W. Keyser Estimated Age:1.5 mya - 2 mya Fossil Name:DNH 7
Notes:Adult (based on wear on third molars)

Species:Homo ergaster/Homo erectus/Homo erectus ergaster Location:Nariokotome West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1984
Discovered By:K. Kimeu Estimated Age:1.6 mya Fossil Name:KNM-WT 15000
Notes:Hairless and dark pigmented body (based on environment, limb proportions) Juvenile (9-12 based on 2nd molar eruption and unfused growth plates) Juvenile (8 years old based on recent studies on tooth development) Incapable of speech (based on narrowing of spinal canal in thoracic region)

Species:Paranthropus boisei/Australopithecus boisei Location:Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1969
Discovered By:R. Leakey and H. Mutua Estimated Age:1.7 mya Fossil Name:KNM-ER 406
Notes:Believed not to have made tools Bone disease behind left eye orbit (possible abscess)

Species:Homo ergaster/Homo erectus ergaster Location:Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia Discovery Date:1999
Discovered By:Gotcha Kiladze Estimated Age:1.7 mya Fossil Name:D2282
Notes:Found with D2280- presumed male cranium Adolescent (based on cranial sutures, molar eruption and dental wear) First confirmed hominid out of Africa

Species:Homo ergaster/Homo erectus/Homo erectus ergaster Location:Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1975
Discovered By:B. Ngeneo Estimated Age:1.75 mya Fossil Name:KNM-ER 3733
Notes:Adult (based on cranial sutures, molar eruption and dental wear)

Species:Homo erectus/Homo ergaster/Homo erectus ergaster Location:Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia Discovery Date:37104
Discovered By:David Lordkipanidze Estimated Age:1.75 mya Fossil Name:D2700
Notes:Adolescent (based on partial eruption of 3rd molars) Closely related to Homo habilis

Species:Paranthropus robustus/Australopithecus robustus Location:Swartkrans South Africa Discovery Date:18444
Discovered By:Fourie. Described by R. Broom Estimated Age:1.8 mya Fossil Name:SK 48
Notes:Adult (based on molar eruption) Enlarged molars and zygomatic arch (Presumably chewing adaptations)

Species:Paranthropus boisei/Australopithecus boisei Location:Olduvai Gorge Tanzania Discovery Date:1959
Discovered By:Mary Leakey Estimated Age:1.8 mya Fossil Name:OH 5
Notes:Young adult (based on open sutures and 3rd molar eruption) Large, massive molars used to crush vegetation

Species:Homo rudolfensis/Homo habilis/Australopithecus rudolfensis/Kenyanthropus rudolfensis Location:Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1972
Discovered By:B. Ngeneo Estimated Age:1.8 mya Fossil Name:KNM-ER 1470
Notes:Bipedal (based on postcranial bones in same layer) Adult Large, massive molars Possible descendent of species represented by KNM-WT 40000

Species:Homo habilis/Australopithecus habilis Location:Koobi Fora Lake Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1973
Discovered By:K. Kimeu Estimated Age:1.9 mya Fossil Name:KNM-ER 1813
Notes:Adult (based on 3rd molar eruption and dental wear) Skull morphology very Homo-like 1813 too different from KNM-ER 1470 to be same species 1813 similar enough to 1470 to be same species

Species:Australopithecus africanus Location:Buxton Limeworks Taung, South Africa Discovery Date:1924
Discovered By:M. de Bruyn Estimated Age:2.3 mya Fossil Name:Taung Child
Notes:juvenile (3 years old based on deciduous teeth, first permanent molars) Bipedal hominid (based on position of foramen magnum, brain endocast, small canines) Killed possibly by bird of prey (based on fractures and puncture marks on skull)

Species:Australopithecus africanus Location:Sterkfontein Cave South Africa Discovery Date:1947
Discovered By:R. Broom & J. Robinson Estimated Age:2.5 mya Fossil Name:Sts 5
Notes:Erect posture (based on forward facing foramen magnum)

Species:Australopithecus aethiopicus/Paranthropus aethiopicus Location:West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:1985
Discovered By:A. Walker Estimated Age:2.5 mya Fossil Name:KNM-WT 17000
Notes:Massive jaws and molars suggestive of herbivorous diet Upright posture (based of forward facing foramen magnum) Fossil color due to manganese-rich minerals

Species:Australopithecus garhi Location:Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:35754
Discovered By:Y. Haile-Selassie Estimated Age:2.5 mya Fossil Name:BOU-VP-12/130
Notes:Descendant of A. afarensis; candidate ancestor for early homo Meat eater (based on tool marked bones found nearby) Teeth and skeleton Homo-like; cranium Australopithecus-like

Species:Homo sapiens/Homo heidelbergensis/Homo erectus Location:Dali Shaanxi Province, China Discovery Date:28550
Discovered By:Liu Shuntang Estimated Age:200,000 ya Fossil Name:Dali
Notes:Low, thick cranium, browridge, slight sagittal crest (like other Asian H. erectus) Small, flat face and prominent cheekbones of modern Chinese Important fossil for multiregional hypothesis for origin of modern humans Shares similarities with European H. Heidelbergensis

Species:Australopithecus afarensis Location:Afar locality Hadar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:1992
Discovered By:Y. Rak Estimated Age:3 mya Fossil Name:A.L.444-2
Notes:Older adult (based on molar eruption and dental wear) Confirms earlier reconstructions of afarensis skull

Species:Australopithecus bahrelghazali/Australopithecus afarensis Location:Bahr el Ghazal, Chad Discovery Date:1995
Discovered By:Michel Brunet Estimated Age:3 mya - 3.5 mya Fossil Name:KT12/H1
Notes:Differs from A. afarensis in chin shape, premolar roots, enamel thickness

Species:Australopithecus afarensis Location:Afar locality Hadar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:1974
Discovered By:D. Johanson Estimated Age:3.18 mya Fossil Name:A.L.288-1
Notes:Adult (based on molar eruption and bone growth) Bipedal (based on pelvis, lower limbs, footprints from A. afarensis at Laetoli) Arboreal climber (based on skeletal evidence)

Species:Australopithecus sp. Location:Sterkfontein Cave South Africa Discovery Date:1997
Discovered By:R.J. Clarke Estimated Age:3.3 mya Fossil Name:StW573
Notes:Adult (based on molar eruption) Small sagittal crest Foot bones suggest tree dwelling ability

Species:Kenyanthropus platyops/Australopithecus afarensis Location:West Turkana, Kenya Discovery Date:36739
Discovered By:J. Erus Estimated Age:3.5 mya Fossil Name:KNM-WT 40000
Notes:Unique mixture of flat face, small cheek teeth with small brain case and earhole May challenge Australopithecus as ancestor of Homo Structurally very similar to KNM-ER 1470

Species:Homo sapiens Location:Abri Cro-Magnon Les Eyzies, France Discovery Date:03/1868
Discovered By:Louis Lartet & Henry Christy Estimated Age:30,000 ya Fossil Name:Cro-Magnon 1

Species:Homo heidelbergensis/Homo erectus/Homo sapiens archaic Location:Broken Hill Kabwe, Zambia Discovery Date:1921
Discovered By:T. Zwigelaar Estimated Age:300,000 ya Fossil Name:Kabwe
Notes:Older adult (based on 10 cavities and wound near ear)

Species:Homo heidelbergensis/Homo neanderthalensis/Archaic Homo sapiens Location:Sima de los Huesos Cave Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Discovery Date:33427
Discovered By:Juan-Luis Arsuaga Estimated Age:300,000 ya Fossil Name:Atapuerca 5
Notes:Adult Fossils represent early stage in Neanderthal evolution Remains perhaps deliberately dumped into the cave

Species:Homo heidelbergensis/Homo neanderthalensis Location:Katsika Hill Petralona, Greece Discovery Date:22175
Discovered By:J. Malkotsis, et al Estimated Age:300,000 ya - 400,000 ya Fossil Name:Petralona 1
Notes:Neanderthal-like browridge Morphological similarities to archaic Homo sapiens

Species:Australopithecus anamensis Location:Kanapoi, Kenya Discovery Date:1994
Discovered By:P. Nzube Estimated Age:4.07 mya - 4.17 mya Fossil Name:KNM-KP 29281
Notes:Adult (based on molar eruption and dental wear) fully bipedal (based on distal humerus and partial tibia fossils also found) Ape-like mandible; Homo-like postcranium

Species:Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus Location:Aramis- Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:1992
Discovered By:A. Asfaw Estimated Age:4.4 mya Fossil Name:ARA-VP-1/129
Notes:Bipedal (based on position of foramen magnum and long bones) Lived in wooded environment (based on seeds, fauna) Perhaps a chimpanzee ancestor, not a human ancestor

Species:Homo heidelbergensis/Homo neanderthalensis Location:Caune de l'Arago Tautavel, France Discovery Date:1971
Discovered By:Henry de Lumley Estimated Age:400,000 ya Fossil Name:Arago XXI
Notes:Features suggest Arago is an ancestral Neanderthal Broca's cap found on endocast of brain (speech areas well developed) Righthanded (based on asymmetry of endocast)

Species:Homo erectus Location:Zhoukoudian Cave China Discovery Date:1928-1937
Discovered By:W.C.Pei Estimated Age:400,000 ya - 500,000 ya Fossil Name:Peking Man
Notes:First evidence of human use of fire found here No evidence of fire in Zhoukoudian Cave (bones naturally burned and washed into cave)

Species:Homo neanderthalensis Location:Amud Cave Israel Discovery Date:22460
Discovered By:Hisashi Suzuki Estimated Age:45,000 ya Fossil Name:Amud
Notes:Adult (about 25 based on degree of suture closure in skull)

Species:Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba Location:Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:1997-1999
Discovered By:Yohannes Haile-Selassie Estimated Age:5.5 mya - 5.8 mya Fossil Name:ALA-VP-2/10
Notes:Lived in wet, wooded environment (Challenges hypothesis that hominids evolved on grassy plains) Bipedal (based on shape of toe bone) May represent earliest known human ancestor Perhaps a chimpanzee ancestor and not a human ancestor

Species:Orrorin tugenensis Location:Lukeino Formation Tugen Hills, Kenya Discovery Date:36831
Discovered By:B. Senut & M. Pickford Estimated Age:5.72 mya - 5.88 mya Fossil Name:BAR 1000'00
Notes:Had tree climbing skills (based on shape of humerus) Bipedal (based on shape of femur) May represent earliest known human ancestorHomo-like teeth and jaws

Species:Homo neanderthalensis Location:La Ferrassie, France Discovery Date:3548
Discovered By:Denis Peyrony and Louis Capitan Estimated Age:50,000 ya Fossil Name:La Ferrassie 1
Notes:Found deliberately buried with 6 other individuals (Neanderthals buried their dead) Classic Neanderthal anatomy (receeding forhead, long, low cranium, thick bones) Heavily worn front teeth (used as tools)

Species:Homo neanderthalensis Location:Bouffia Bonneval La Chapelle-Aux-Saints, France Discovery Date:3138
Discovered By:Amadee and Jean Bouyssonie and Josef Bonneval Estimated Age:50,000 ya Fossil Name:La Chapelle-Aux-Saints
Notes:Adult (40-50 years old) Severe arthritis. Original interpretation led to misconception of Neanderthal lifestyle and locomotion Skeleton shows adaptations to cold climate Flat cranium base (Neanderthals perhaps could not make a,i,u sounds- larynx too high in throat)

Species:Sahelanthropus Tchadensis Location:Anthrocotheriid Unit Toros-Menalla, Chad Discovery Date:37091
Discovered By:Djimdoumalbaye Ahounta Estimated Age:6 mya - 7 mya Fossil Name:TM266-01-060-1
Notes:Adult cranium with novel combination of primitive and derived traits. Suggested to be bipedal (based on position of foramen magnum). Perhaps not a direct human ancestor; Chimp ancestor? Gorilla ancestor?

Species:Homo heidelbergensis/Homo erectus Location:Middle Awash Afar, Ethiopia Discovery Date:29129
Discovered By:A. Asfaw, P. Whitehead, C. Wood Estimated Age:600,000 ya Fossil Name:Bodo
Notes:Transition fossil linking Homo erectus and Homo sapiens Cranium exhibits cut marks- perhaps a result of defleshing

Species:Homo antecessor/Homo heidelbergensis Location:Gran Dolina Atapuerca, Spain Discovery Date:1997
Discovered By:J.M. Bermudez de Castro Estimated Age:780,000 ya Fossil Name:ATD6-69
Notes:May be common ancestor to modern humans and Neanderthals Earliest case of hominid cannabilism (based on cut marks from stone tools on most of remains)

Species:Homo erectus Location:Sangiran Java, Indonesia Discovery Date:25459
Discovered By:Towikromo Estimated Age:800,000 ya Fossil Name:Sangiran 17
Notes:Fossil rusty brown from iron oxide

Species:Homo sapiens Location:Skhul Cave Mount Carmel, Israel Discovery Date:11811
Discovered By:Theodore McCown and Hallum Movius Jr. Estimated Age:90,000 ya Fossil Name:Skhul V
Notes:Found with 9 other individuals (intentionally buried) Adult (30-40 years old based on cranial suture and dental wear Presence in Near East before Neanderthals evidence that modern humans did not evolve directly from them

Species:Homo sapiens Location:Qafzeh Cave Israel Discovery Date:1969
Discovered By:Bernard Vandermeersch Estimated Age:90,000 ya - 100,000 ya Fossil Name:Qafzeh IX
Notes:One of oldest known modern humans (proto Cro-Magnon)

Species:Homo neanderthalensis Location:Forbes Quarry Gibraltar, Spain Discovery Date:1848
Discovered By:Unknown Estimated Age:Unknown Fossil Name:Gibraltar 1
Notes:Enormous nasal opening and first skull examined for unique Neanderthal trait of bony nasal swellings